Jacki Kellum

Juxtapositions: Read My Mind

Category: 19th Century Painters

The Barbizon School of Painters, The Hudson River Painters, and The Tonalists – Seeking Harmony Through Nature and Art

The French Barbizon School of Painters was a reaction against the Renaissance art which sought to idealize the classical form. The Barbizon Painters looked to nature, rather than to the classical ideal, as a source of inspiration–in much the same way as described of the scientist by Poincaré.

“The scientist does not study nature because it is useful to do so. He studies it because he takes pleasure in it, and he takes pleasure in it because it is beautiful. If nature were not beautiful it would not be worth knowing, and life would not be worth living. I am not speaking, of course, of the beauty which strikes the senses, of the beauty of qualities and appearances. I am far from despising this, but it has nothing to do with science. What I mean is that more intimate beauty which comes from the harmonious order of its parts, and which a pure intelligence can grasp.”
― Henri Poincaré, Science and Method

Image result for george inness paintings

George Inness – Autumn Oaks

After the emergence of the Barbizon School in France, an American Barbizon School formed. One of its members was George Inness.

Albert Bierstadt – The Hudson River School of Painting

The Hudson River School also followed the French Barbizon school of painters.

Image result for john francis murphy

John Francis Murphy – Autumn – Tonalist

The Tonalists followed the Barbizon painters and the Hudson River Painters, and they continued to focus on nature, as they began to seek a deeper spiritual truth or peace or harmony through their affiinities with and  paintings of nature. All of these painters were Romantic in nature.

In many ways, I am a Romanticist. I wrote my first master’s thesis about William Blake, who was a forefather of the Romantic period of English Literature, which began about 250 years ago, but my art has always been modern, bright, and colorful. Until recently, I have not been highly impressed with landscape painters–especially with people who want nothing more than a slavish representation of reality in painting. I prefer a camera for that purpose. I did not begin to fully appreciate landscape painting until I became familiar with the Hudson River Painters. I discovered them after I moved from the South to the Northeast.

Durand – The Catskills – Hudson River Painter

Even as a child, I found nature to be my greatest source of inspiration. I often write about the ways that my summers at camp influenced my chidhood. It is in nature that I find personal peace and harmony, and I enjoy learning more about artists who have endeavored to recreate that natural harmony through painting. Today, I have been trying to research where this artistic tradition began, and it seems that we can thank the French Barbizon painters for leading the way.

©Jacki Kellum July 23, 2017

“The Barbizon school of painters were part of an art movement towards Realism in art, which arose in the context of the dominant Romantic Movement of the time. The Barbizon school was active roughly from 1830 through 1870. It takes its name from the village of Barbizon, France, near the Forest of Fontainebleau, where many of the artists gathered. Some of the most prominent features of this school are its tonal qualities, color, loose brushwork, and softness of form.[1]” Wikipedia

Image result for john constable landscape

John Constable – Wivenhoe Park – 1816

“In 1824 the Salon de Paris exhibited works of John Constable, an English painter. His rural scenes influenced some of the younger artists of the time, moving them to abandon formalism and to draw inspiration directly from nature. Natural scenes became the subjects of their paintings rather than mere backdrops to dramatic events. During the Revolutions of 1848 artists gathered at Barbizon to follow Constable’s ideas, making nature the subject of their paintings. The French landscape became a major theme of the Barbizon painters.[2] Wikipedia

Troyon – The Ford

Dupre – The Old Oak

Jacque – The Old Forest

“The leaders of the Barbizon school were Théodore Rousseau, Jean-François Millet, and Charles-François Daubigny; other members included Jules Dupré, Constant Troyon, Charles Jacque, Narcisse Virgilio Díaz, Pierre Emmanuel Damoye, Charles Olivier de Penne, Henri Harpignies, Paul-Emmanuel Péraire, Gabriel-Hippolyte Lebas, Albert Charpin, Félix Ziem, François-Louis Français, Émile van Marcke, and Alexandre Defaux.” Wikipedia

Millet extended the idea from landscape to figures — peasant figures, scenes of peasant life, and work in the fields.

“In The Gleaners (1857), for example, Millet portrays three peasant women working at the harvest. Gleaners are poor people who are permitted to gather the remains after the owners of the field complete the main harvest. The owners (portrayed as wealthy) and their laborers are seen in the back of the painting. Millet shifted the focus and the subject matter from the rich and prominent to those at the bottom of the social ladders. To emphasize their anonymity and marginalized position, he hid their faces.” Wikipedia

Julien Dupre

Many of the aforementioned painters included cows in their paintings. There is something particularly bucolic about pastoral paintings with cows.

Jacki Kellum July 23, 2017

Harmonize

Visual Harmony – John Singer Sargent and His Depiction of White

When I hear the word “harmony,” my usual thoughts are about music, but today, as I consider the nature of harmony, my mind shifts to painters, like John Singer Sargent–painters who have excelled in depicting visual harmony. In my opinion, Sargent’s mastery is no better realized than in his depictions of things that are white, and in this post, I’ll share with you some of my favorite of Sargent’s white paintings.

Artistically speaking, white is not a color. We only see white as it is reflected upon and shaded by other colors. Hence, in painting whites, Sargent painted delicious but subtle values. It is safe to say that John Singer Sargent was a master of capturing value and he is a past master or a virtuoso of capturing light or luminosity.

La Biancheria [Linen Sheets – John Singer Sargent

“Color is an inborn gift, but appreciation of value is merely training of the eye, which everyone ought to be able to acquire.”  ―John Singer Sargent

 

Man Seated by a Stream – John Singer Sargent

In the above painting, you see the way that Sargent used ochres in the highlighted areas and blues in shade.

Tent in the Rockies – John Singer Sargent

I recently saw an exhibition that included Sargent’s painting Tent in the Rockies, and that piece took my breath away. This reproduction doesn’t come close to Sargent’s mastery of light in that painting. The fabric of Sargent’s tent fabric shimmers, and the powdery blue shadows on the birch tree poles are suggested flawlessly.

Workmen – John Singer Sargent

Boats – Venice – John Singer Sargent

Boy on a Rock – John Singer Sargent

Brook Among Rocks – John Singer Sargent

Cashmere Shawl – John Singer Sargent

Corfu – John Singer Sargent

“The scientist does not study nature because it is useful to do so. He studies it because he takes pleasure in it, and he takes pleasure in it because it is beautiful. If nature were not beautiful it would not be worth knowing, and life would not be worth living. I am not speaking, of course, of the beauty which strikes the senses, of the beauty of qualities and appearances. I am far from despising this, but it has nothing to do with science. What I mean is that more intimate beauty which comes from the harmonious order of its parts, and which a pure intelligence can grasp.”
― Henri Poincaré, Science and Method

Egyptian Water Jars -John Singer Sargent

Escutcheon of Charles V

Facade of a Palazzo – John Singer Sargent

Feet of an Arab – John Singer Sargent

Sargent seems to paint most of his watercolor shadows in  transparent tones of either raw sienna, burnt sienna, or blue. I am not sure what his exact watercolor palette was, but I found a list of the colors that Sargent used for oil painting Here:

On the right are modern colors one could use.

This is from the book, “The Technique of Portrait Painting” by Harrington Mann, J.B.

1.  Blanc d’ Argent                                                             1.  Permalba White

2.  Pale Chrome                                                                  2.  Cadmium Yellow Light

3.  Transparent Gold Ochre                                         3.  Transparent Gold Ochre

4.  Chinese Vermillion                                                      4.  Cadmium Red Light

5.  Venetian Red                                                                 5.  Venetian Red

6.  Chrome Orange                                                            6.  Cadmium Orange

7.  Burnt Sienna                                                                  7.  Burnt Sienna

8.  Raw Umber                                                                     8.  Raw Umber

9.  Garance Fronce                                                            9.  Rose Madder or Perm Alizarin Crimson

10.  Viridian                                                                          10-14.  same as old name

11.  Cobalt Blue

12.  Fr Ultramarine Blue

13.  Ivory Black

14.  Cobalt Violet

The Conservation Dept of Tate Britain, London also discovered Mars Yellow,

Emerald Green, Sienna, Mars Brown, Red Lead, Cerulean.   The dark backgrounds were often a mixture

of ivory black, mars brown, and lot of medium mixed from stand oil and turpentine.

Poppies – John Singer Sargent – Oil

Color is the keyboard, the eyes are the harmonies, the soul is the piano with many strings. The artist is the hand that plays, touching one key or another, to cause vibrations in the soul.― Wassily Kandinsky

I don’t ant to end this post suggesting that Sargent could only paint in white. John Singer Sargent was a prolific painter, and his colorful pieces are also brilliant. I guess it is because my own paintings are very colorful that I feel the need to focus today on Sargent’s paintings of white. In my opinion, Sargent’s whites are the essence of harmony. I hope to learn something of the way that John Singer Sargent played with the entirety of his instrument–the way that he painted both colors and whites.

“In the end we shall have had enough of cynicism, skepticism and humbug, and we shall want to live more musically.”― Vincent van Gogh

©Jacki Kellum July 23, 2017

See My Review of John Singer Sargent and Winslow Homer in the Exhibition of American Watercolor  http://jackikellum.com/john-singer-sargents-luminous-watercolors-and-winslow-homers-painted-stories-a-discussion-of-the-exhibition-american-watercolor-at-the-philadelphia-museum-of-art/

Harmonize

John Singer Sargent’s Luminous Watercolors and Winslow Homer’s Painted Stories – A Discussion of the Exhibition American Watercolor at the Philadelphia Museum of Art

On May 6, 2017, I went to Philadelphia to experience the exhibit: American Watercolor in the Age of Homer and Sargent, and I was reminded how very important it is to take advantage of seeing art first-hand, as opposed to relying on reproductions of it either online or in books.

I bought the official exhibition book while I was at the exhibition, but I bought the book for what it said about the paintings and not for an accurate record of how the paintings look. I have learned that paintings are difficult to reproduce and that books rarely manage the task successfully.

Colors rarely translate well in art books, photographs, and online, and although I have seen reproductions of John Singer Sargent’s  Spanish Fountain many times before, I have never been quite sure whether the painting was done in warm tones, as above, or cool tones, as below:

Spanish Fountain was in the exhibition American Watercolor, and now that I have actually seen the painting, I know that it is painted in warm hues and that it is more like the top reproduction than the second, but neither of the above images does Sargent’s Spanish Fountain justice.

John Singer Sargent’s handling of light in his watercolors borders on magic. You cannot detect it in either of the above reproductions, but Sargent also suggests more detail in the faces of the cherubs than the reproductions depict. I have always liked Singer’s work, but until I saw his actual paintings, I never fully experienced them. Now that I have actually seen Sargent’s watercolors, my appreciation of Sargent has moved to another level.

Tent in the Rockies – John Singer Sargent

Reproductions of Sargent’sTent in the Rockies suggest something of the artist’s masterful use of transparent watercolor, but the reproductions do not nearly capture the luminosity of paintings like Tent in the Rockies. When Sargent captures the quality of anything white, he infuses the exposed white watercolor paper [the part that he does not paint at all] with whispers of delicate shades of yellow ochre, blue, and burnt sienna. Because of the luminosity that he captures, his predominantly white paintings, like Tent in the Rockies, scream from their places on the wall.

In the reproductions of Tent in the Rockies, you see nothing of the bits of color that Sargent masterfully lays to suggest the tent’s birch tree poles, and you do not fully realize that the artist only suggested the gear inside the tent with nothing more than a few dabs of perfectly-placed color. Even when seen in person, the gear inside the tent has no detail at all; yet, a viewer’s eyes speculate into form from the suggestions that they see in the pools of color.

Diamond Shoal – Winslow Homer

Many times, I have seen reproductions of Winslow Homer’s painting Diamond Shoal, and I had always believed that this would be a large painting. The imagery is large and robust and expansive, but when I saw Diamond Shoal in the Museum, I was amazed at how very dwarfed the painting seems in a museum setting. Diamond Shoal measures 13.5″ x 21.75″ but in a museum setting, it seems to be about 8″ x 10.”

Boy Fishing – Winslow Homer

The Exhibition American Watercolor asks the viewer the question: which painter do you prefer–Winslow Homer or John Singer Sargent? While I love most of Homer’s paintings, I aspire toward Sargent’s mastery of paint.

In the 21st Century, Winslow Homer’s paintings–especially those containing human figures–are nostalgic. They recall a slower time in history, but few of Homer’s paintings have  the degree of luminosity that Sargent captures.

Garden in Nassau – Winslow Homer

In my opinion, Homer’s painting Garden in Nassau is one of his most luminous, and because of the way that the child is looking wistfully at the coconuts on the other side of the wall, it is also nostalgic. Winslow Homer was more than a painter of scenes, he was a storyteller, and the viewer experiences a story through Homer’s painting Garden in Nassau.

There is also an element of storytelling in Sargent’s Tent in the Rockies. When we see the suggestion of the gear inside the tent, we begin to imagine a story, and the painting Muddy Alligators suggests a bit of a story.

Muddy Alligators – John Singer Sargent

But the strength of Sargent’s work has nothing to do with his story. John Singer Sargent is an inspired painter of light. The exhibition American Watercolor had two full rooms of watercolors that looked like oils and egg tempera paintings. They were painted opaquely and every inch of the paper of those paintings was smothered in paint. I had to force myself to look closely at all of those “watercolors?,” but Sargent’s paintings were saved for last. They were the dessert of the show–the after-dinner liqueur, and the cream that had risen to the top.

Detail Muddy Alligators

If you look closely at the detail of Sargent’s Muddy Alligators, you will see that the alligator on the bottom right has two tiny dots of white that seem to be the glints from two teeth. I may be wrong but those two infinitesimal dots of white seem to be the only bits of opaque paint on Sargent’s Muddy Alligators, and I am glad that he painted these two dots opaquely. Although tiny in size, these two tiny spots see to anchor and bring focus to what is happening in the rest of the painting. They draw the viewer’s eye to the very bottom of the image, but Sargent’s true strength lies in his use of exposed paper and his transparent glazes of color. The tiny slashes of white on the teeth are examples of Sargent’s bravura, which is fully realized in some of his best oil paintings, which were not on ehibition in the American Watercolor Show.

define bravura

When an artist paints with bravura, his brush strokes have an energy all their own and segments of a painting can be enjoyed simply because of the way that they are painted, irrespective of the subject matter of the painting.

John Singer Sargent – Detail of a Portrait

John Singer Sargent was one of the most famous portrait painters in history. He was commissioned to paint many famous and wealthy people; therefore, he did have an ability to capture a likeness. Yet, he did not press all of the energy from his work to do so. In the above painting, look at Sargent’s brush strokes in painting the girl’s pinafore. 

John Singer Sargent – Daughters of Edward Darley Boit, 1882

When viewed from a distance, the viewer’s eyes pull the strokes together, but upon closer observation, one becomes aware of Sargent’s energy and his absolute joy in painting. Sargent’s work is alive. From a distance, we can see that the youngest daughter is holding her doll, but up close, there appears to be no doll at all. The youngest child is actually just holding slashes of paint.

Here is another portrait by John Singer Sargent. Notice how the stripes of white dance across the page. Contrast the slabs of color in the hair to the softness of the girl’s face. Sargent painted with bravura only where he could do so and not sacrifice the delicacy that was needed in other spots. I must believe that Sargent’s ability to paint white in oil was enhanced by what he had discovered from painting white in watercolor.

 Group with a Parasol – John Singer Sargent – Oil

 Group with a Parasol was the only John Singer Sargent oil in the show American Watercolor. Once again, this photograph of the painting is not representative of the actual work. When you see  Group with a Parasol, the bravura is almost too much–especially for people who don’t love great bravura painting.  Group with a Parasol is almost expressionistic, but most of Sargent’s figure paintings in oil are painted more delicately. but Sargent’s whites always stand out.

John Singer Sargent – Carnation, Lily, Lily, Rose

sargent-lily

Detail – Essence of a Lily – Compare how few strokes it took for Sargent to capture the essence of a lily. This is an example of capturing an impression of something, as opposed to painting it in perfect realism. In other words, this is an example of impressionism, which is one of my favorite eras of art.

Image result for stargazer lily Actual Lily

sargentrose

Detail – Essence of Roses

John Singer Sargent did not invent bravura in brush work.

The Dutch painters Rembrandt and Frans Hals were masters of bravura 200 years before Sargent, and I encourage people to examine all of the artists who painted with bravura. It should become apparent that joy in painting is much more than the reproduction of an image. Cameras can copy. Painters should interpret, and the best way to capture vitality and life is to let your pencil and your brush run free. We should merely skip along behind our brushes as they paint. That is where we’ll find the joy in making art.

©Jacki Kellum May 7, 2017
Exposed

The colors that John Singer Sargent are listed Here as follows: On the right are modern colors one could use.

This is from the book, “The Technique of Portrait Painting” by Harrington Mann, J.B.

1.  Blanc d’ Argent                                                             1.  Permalba White

2.  Pale Chrome                                                                   2.  Cadmium Yellow Light

3.  Transparent Gold Ochre                                         3.  Transparent Gold Ochre

4.  Chinese Vermillion                                                      4.  Cadmium Red Light

5.  Venetian Red                                                                 5.  Venetian Red

6.  Chrome Orange                                                            6.  Cadmium Orange

7.  Burnt Sienna                                                                  7.  Burnt Sienna

8.  Raw Umber                                                                    8.  Raw Umber

9.  Garance Fronce                                                           9.  Rose Madder or Perm Alizarin Crimson

10.  Viridian                                                                         10-14.  same as old name

11.  Cobalt Blue

12.  Fr Ultramarine Blue

13.  Ivory Black

14.  Cobalt Violet

The Conservation Dept of Tate Britain, London also discovered Mars Yellow,

Emerald Green, Sienna, Mars Brown, Red Lead, Cerulean.   The dark backgrounds were often a mixture

of ivory black, mars brown, and lot of medium mixed from stand oil and turpentine.

© 2017 Jacki Kellum

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