Jacki Kellum

Juxtapositions: Read My Mind

Month: December 2016 (page 1 of 2)

A Short List of the Historical American Girl Dolls in Order – with Dates

1764 – Kaya – A Child of the Early American Nez Perce People

1774 – Felicity Merriman – A Child during the American Revolution

1812 – Caroline Abbott – A Child during the War of 1812

1824 – Josefina Montoya – A Child from New Mexico before it became a state

1853 – Cecile Rey – A Child of mixed race from Ante-Bellum New Orleans

1853 – Marie Grace Gardner – Another Child from Jacki Kellum-Bellum New Orleans]

1854 – Kirsten Larson – A Swedish Immigrant and Pioneer in Minnesota

1864 – Addy Walker – A Runaway Slave Child during the Civil War

1904 – Samantha Parkington – A Child during the Victorian-Edwardian period when women’s rights and suffrage were of concern

1914 – Rebecca Rubin – A Child of Jewish-Russian descent whose family immigrated to the Lower East Side of New York City

1934 – Kit Kittredge – A Child growing up during the Great Depression

1954 – Maryellen Barkin – A Child growing up in post World War II–during the 1950’s

1964 – Melody Ellison – An African American Child growing up during the Civil Rights Era in Motown Detroit

1974 – Julie Albright – A Child growing up in San Francisco during the Hippie Era

©Jacki Kellum December 25, 2016

 

 

Kaya’s People, the Nez Perce, Bred Magnificent Appaloosa Horses

Kaya’s Horse Steps High is a Type of Appaloosa Horse.

Kaya’s people, the Nez Perce became horse enthusiasts and horse breeders. Ultimately, they crossbred Appaloosa horses with a another, hearty horse, and even today, the Nez Perce people are characterized as Indians with spotted horses.

“According to tradition, the Nez Perce first saw horses while visiting their friends, the Cayuses, who had traded for them with their southern neighbors, the Shoshones. The Nez Perce valleys turned out to be ideal for raising horses, and the Nez Perce people soon became known for their swift horses and fine horsemanship.” Welcome to Kay’s World, p. 6.

The Nez Perce People Lived North of the Shoshone, but they were neighbors.

“The Appaloosa is an American horse breed best known for its colorful spotted coat pattern. There is a wide range of body types within the breed, stemming from the influence of multiple breeds of horses throughout its history. Each horse’s color pattern is genetically the result of various spotting patterns overlaid on top of one of several recognized base coat colors.” Wikipedia

“Artwork depicting prehistoric horses with leopard spotting exists in prehistoric cave paintings in Europe. Images of domesticated horses with leopard spotting patterns appeared in artwork from Ancient Greece and Han dynasty China through the early modern period;

the Nez Perce people of what today is the United States Pacific Northwest developed the original American breed.

“Appaloosas were once referred to by settlers as the ‘Palouse horse’, possibly after the Palouse River, which ran through the heart of Nez Perce country. Gradually, the name evolved into ‘Appaloosa’. – Wikipedia

“Katie Harris is photographed with her Appaloosa. Harris made most of the horse trappings as well as her own traditional outfits herself, including the bead work. Some of the trappings are passed down from older generations but the girls like to make their own to continue the tradition.” – National Geographic

Appaloosas have a freckled kind of spotting, but the spot patterns may vary. If the spots are large and solid, the horse is probably a Pinto or a Paint. Those are also Native American Horses, but they are not like Appaloosas.

Now the foal has grown and has a foal of her own.

Children’s Librarian Jacki Kellum has begun work toward launching an American Girl Doll Club.

The club will officially begin January 20, 2017, and there will be videos about how to sew, cook, and design clothes for all of the American Girl Dolls. There will also be free videos that teach the history and the character of each doll. Kaya is the first doll for the American Girl Doll.  Expect new American Girl material every day or two.american-girl-poster

©Jacki Kellum December 24.2016

Very Short Video – How Bear Helped Nimiipuu – A Nez Perce Legend for Kaya, the American Doll – Watch Free

“Long ago, when the people were first on the earth and animals could still talk, a little boy strayed too far from his village. For days, the boy wandered lost, without food or water.

Then one day, he came upon Hah-hahts, Grizzly Bear.“Now Hah-hahts had heard from his friend Coyote that Nimíipuu were coming to live on the land.  Hah-hahts had never seen Nimíipuu, but he was sure he hated them. He thought Nimíipuu wanted to take away the land he loved.

Hah-hahts reared up on his hind legs and bared his sharp teeth and claws. ‘Child of Nimíipuu!’ he growled. ‘Do you think you can take my land from me? I will tear you to pieces with one swipe of my paw!’

“The boy just stood gazing at Hah-hahts. Finally he said in a quiet voice, All you can do is kill me. I am not afraid of death. Death is a part of life.’

 

“Hah-hahts stopped in his tracks. ‘All other animals fear me, but you do not!” he said. ‘You are as brave and as wise as Coyote. You must deserve to live on this land.

Come with me. I will show you all you need to know about your new home.’

“Hah-hahts flipped the boy onto his back and carried him off into the high country. He showed the boy the streams where Salmon ran in the spring and the homes of Deer and Elk.

He climbed along the backbone of the mountains and showed the boy the lands where Buffalo lived.

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“He pointed out huckleberry and serviceberry bushes and the meadows where camas bulbs grew.

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“Finally, Hah-hahts took the boy back to his village. ‘Now you know all I know about this land,’ he said. ‘Go and tell your people that as long as Nimíipuu honor the land, it will be theirs to use.’” Welcome to Kaya’s World, p. 22

Children’s Librarian Jacki Kellum has begun work toward launching an American Girl Doll Club. Enjoy this 2 minute video that retells the Native American Legend How Bear Helped Nimíipuu– [the Nimïipuu are the Nez Perce, who are Kaya, the American Girl Doll’s tribe]. The story is read by Jacki Kellum.

The club will officially begin January 20, 2017, and there will be videos about how to sew, cook, and design clothes for all of the American Girl Dolls. There will also be free videos that teach the history and the character of each doll. Kaya is the first doll for the American Girl Doll. american-girl-poster

©Jacki Kellum December 24, 2017 – Merry Christmas!

How Bear Helped Nimiipuu – A Nez Perce Legend for Kaya the American Doll

 

“Long ago, when the people were first on the earth and animals could still talk, a little boy strayed too far from his village. For days, the boy wandered lost, without food or water. Then one day, he came upon Hah-hahts, Grizzly Bear.

 

“Now Hah-hahts had heard from his friend Coyote that Nimíipuu were coming to live on the land.  Hah-hahts had never seen Nimíipuu, but he was sure he hated them. He thought Nimíipuu wanted to take away the land he loved.


Hah-hahts reared up on his hind legs and bared his sharp teeth and claws. ‘Child of Nimíipuu!’ he growled. ‘Do you think you can take my land from me? I will tear you to pieces with one swipe of my paw!’

“The boy just stood gazing at Hah-hahts. Finally he said in a quiet voice, All you can do is kill me. I am not afraid of death. Death is a part of life.’

“Hah-hahts stopped in his tracks. ‘All other animals fear me, but you do not!” he said. ‘You are as brave and as wise as Coyote. You must deserve to live on this land. Come with me. I will show you all you need to know about your new home.’

“Hah-hahts flipped the boy onto his back and carried him off into the high country. He showed the boy the streams where Salmon ran in the spring and the homes of Deer and Elk. He climbed along the backbone of the mountains and showed the boy the lands where Buffalo lived.

Image result for huckleberry

“He pointed out huckleberry and serviceberry bushes and the meadows where camas bulbs grew.

Image result for camas root

“Finally, Hah-hahts took the boy back to his village. ‘Now you know all I know about this land,’ he said. ‘Go and tell your people that as long as Nimíipuu honor the land, it will be theirs to use.’” Welcome to Kaya’s World, p. 22

Meet Kaya from 1764 The Earliest American Girl Doll – Historically Speaking

Kaya is a Native American doll who represents the Nez Perce people that congregated in Washington, Idaho, and Oregon. Although Kaya was not one of the three American Girl Dolls who were created initially, she does represent the earliest doll, in regards to America’s history. Kaya represents a child in 1764.

Every Human in America Is An Immigrant

Image result for Bering Land BridgeAccording to many scholars, the United States initially had no indigenous people, and all humans who eventually populated the country were immigrants. The Native Americans would have been the first immigrants, and they came from Asia during the Ice Age, when the Bering Straight was the Bering Land Bridge.

Kaya’s tribe, the Nez Perce, were the Native Americans who settled very near the place of that migration.

Most Americans regret that the British came to America and strienpped the Native Americans of their homeland, but an old Nez Perce myth tells of the time before they caed to America–a time when the natives were the animals of the region.

Smart educators have learned that the best way to teach a child is to allow him or her to re-live or become involved with what they are studying, and one of the brilliant things about the American Girl Doll Company is that it has harnessed play as a powerful teaching tool.

Image result for kaya's animals Kaya’s Animals

“Nez Perce children were taught that humans were the last–and therefore the youngest–creatures on earth.” ” Welcome to Kaya’s World, p. 21

“Long ago, when the people were first on the earth and animals could still talk, a little boy strayed too far from his village. For days, the boy wandered lost, without food or water. Then one day, he came upon Hah-hahts, Grizzly Bear.

“Now Hah-hahts had heard from his friend Coyote that Nimíipuu were coming to live on the land.  Hah-hahts had never seen Nimíipuu, but he was sure he hated them. He thought Nimíipuu wanted to take away the land he loved.


Hah-hahts reared up on his hind legs and bared his sharp teeth and claws. ‘Child of Nimíipuu!’ he growled. ‘Do you think you can take my land from me? I will tear you to pieces with one swipe of my paw!’

“The boy just stood gazing at Hah-hahts. Finally he said in a quiet voice, All you ca do is kill me. I am not afraid of death. Death is a part of life.’

“Hah-hahts stopped in his tracks. ‘All other animals fear me, but you do not!” he said. ‘You are as brave and as wise as Coyote. You must deserve to live on this land. Come with me. I will show you all you need to know about your new home.’

“Hah-hahts flipped the boy onto his back and carried him off into the high country. He showed the boy the greams where Salmon ran in the spring and the homes of Deer and Elk. He climbed along the backbone of the mountains and showed the boy the lands where Buffalo lived.

Image result for huckleberry

“He pointed out huckleberry and serviceberry bushes and the meadows where camas bulbs grew.

Image result for camas root

“Finally, Hah-hahts took the boy back to his village. ‘Now you know all I know about this land,’ he said. ‘Go and tell your people that as long as Nimíipuu honor the land, it will be theirs to use.'” Welcome to Kaya’s World, p. 22

“They learned to look to their elders, the animals, for wisdom and strength  in the face of danger. From the wold they learned to protect their young, to be quick and sure in hunting, and to use their wits to survive. People who had wolf wyakins, like Kaya’s father, Toe-ta, were known for their strong hunting powers.

“Today people can learn more about wolves by visiting the Wolf Education Center in Winchester, Idaho. The Nez Perce tribe adopted a pack of wolves that were featured in the documentaries Wolf:Return of a Legend and Wolves at our Door.” Welcome to Kaya’s World, p. 21

 

“All men were made by the Great Spirit Chief. They are all brothers.” – Chief Joseph

 

“I believe much trouble would be saved if we opened our hearts more. ” – Chief Joseph

Who Was Chief Joseph?

“It does not require many words to speak the truth.” – Chief Joseph

“Hin-mah-too-yah-lat-kekt, Hinmatóowyalahtq̓it in Americanist orthography, popularly known as Chief Joseph or Young Joseph (March 3, 1840 – September 21, 1904), succeeded his father Tuekakas (Chief Joseph the Elder) as the leader of the Wal-lam-wat-kain (Wallowa) band of Nez Perce, a Native American tribe indigenous to the Wallowa Valley in northeastern Oregon, in the interior Pacific Northwest region of the United States.

“He led his band during the most tumultuous period in their contemporary history when they were forcibly removed from their ancestral lands in the Wallowa Valley by the United States federal government and forced to move northeast, onto the significantly reduced reservation in Lapwai, Idaho Territory. A series of events that culminated in episodes of violence led those Nez Perce who resisted removal, including Joseph’s band and an allied band of the Palouse tribe, to take flight to attempt to reach political asylum, ultimately with the Lakota led by Sitting Bull, who had sought refuge in Canada.” Wikipedia

“Treat all men alike. Give them the same law. Give them an even chance to live and grow.” – Chief Joseph

The first Native Americans had no horses. The Spanish brought the first horses to America during the 1500’s and after that time, the Native American lifestyle was changed.

“Kaya’s grandmother told her, ‘When I was a girl, we didn’t even have horses.’ When Kaya was a girl, horses had been part of Nez Perce life for only fifty years.” Welcome to Kay’s World, p. 5.

“Grandparents, or elders, were the main teachers in the communiy because they had the most patience, wisdom, and experience. They taught children to have sharp memories. Everything in Nez Perce culture was passed on by example and through songs, stories, and legends that children learned by heart.” Welcome to Kay’s World, p. 16.

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“Kaya knew, too, that even the earth brought change. She knew that when the snows moved across the mountains, she and her family would move, too, just as they always had done, following the seasons to gather their food. Already change had come to her people. Beside the longhouse fire, Kay’s grandmother told stories of a time before horses, and the changes the horses had brought. Some of the changes were good ones–swift travel, good food supplies, new friends and trade. But there were bad changes, too–deadly diseases, enemy raids.

“Kaya’s grandmother hinted at an even greater change as well–change brought by strangers with pale faces from far away. For Kaya, these changes were no more than whispers in the wind. She knew that if she did her best to be a good Nimiipuu, she would have the strength and spirit to survive whatever came her way.” Welcome to Kay’s World, p. 1.

“I want the white people to understand my people. ” – Chief Joseph

The Nez Perce became horse enthusiasts and horse breeders. Ultimately, they crossbred Appaloosa horses with a another, hearty horse, and even today, the Nez Perce people are characterized as Indians with spotted horses.

“According to tradition, the Nez Perce first saw horses while visiting their friends, the Cayuses, who had traded for them with their southern neighbors, the Shoshones. The New Perce valleys turned out to be ideal for raising horses, and the New Perce people soon became known for their swift horses and fine horsemanship.” Welcome to Kay’s World, p. 6.

Picture of Katie Harris with her horse

Image Credit National Geographic Here

“Katie Harris is photographed with her Appaloosa. Harris made most of the horse trappings as well as her own traditional outfits herself, including the bead work. Some of the trappings are passed down from older generations but the girls like to make their own to continue the tradition.”

Kaya’s horse Steps High is integral to her story:

Image result for kaya's horse steps high“From the back of her beloved horse, Steps High, Kay could see the sheltering peaks of the Bitterroot Mountains before her. She could hear the rushing waters of the river and the splashing of the salmon who offered themselves as food for her people. She could smell the familiar scents of smoke from the tepee fires and feel a quiver of delight run along her horse’s back. Kaya felt the  same quiver run through her own body.” Welcome to Kay’s World, p. 1.

 

 “Nez Perce children grew up with horses. As infants, they rocked in cradleboards hung from saddle hons. As toddlers, they rode tied to the saddle behind older relatives on trails to hunting or root-gathering grounds. By the time they were nine or ten, children rode well, and they knew how to train and care for their horses. The Nez Perce people treaed all horses with respect and honored their own with fine trappings.” Welcome to Kaya’s World, p. 18.

 

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Image result for kaya's horse steps highNotice the decorative saddle bags and blankets on Kaya’s horse.

“Today, as in Kaya’s time, men, women, girls, and boys parade their horses in heir finest regalia, or outfits, to show pride in Nez Perce artistry and culture.” Welcome to Kaya’s World, p. 19.

Also notice that Steps High has a little, white foal and note the very tall horn on Steps High’s Saddle. In the same way that the Nez Perce mothers would carry their babies, Kaya carried her doll on a cradleboard that was strapped to the horse’s saddle horn.

Image result for kaya doll cradle board

“The birth of a child was a welcome event in a Nez Perce village. About a month or two before a baby was born, the mother moved to a small, separate birthing lodge. During this time, she spoke and ate only with female relatives, who brought her food and instructed her on childbirth and infant care. As soon as the child was born, the village crier announced the birth to the rest of the community. Relatives rought gifts and celebrated with feasts for the mother and baby, and all gave thanks for the new life.

“Cradleboards allowed mothers to use their hands while keeping babies close by. Mothers could wear the cradleboards on their baks, prop them against a tree trunk, or hang them on a saddle. Often, the rocking motion of a walking horse wold lull the baby to sleep.”

“A cradleboard, or tee-kas, kept a baby safe and snug unil he or she was ready to walk. Nez Perce parents believed that cradleboards gave children straight backs and legs and strong spirits.” Welcome to Kaya’s World, p. 12.

Picture

Image Credit: Nez Perce Today

“Some of you think an Indian is like a wild animal. This is a great mistake.” – Chief Joseph

An authentic doll and cradleboard. Image Credit Nez Perce National Historical Museum

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“Children used their imaginations to make their own toys. One elder woman remembered making a miniature village ot of stones and shells. She wrapped the stones in bits of deerskin to make people and used mussel shells for horses. Then she made tiny bows out of grass and placed them by the people to protect them as they slept.” Welcome to Kaya’s World, p. 15.

   

An Authentic Nez Perce Doll – Image Credit: prices4antiques.com

“Girls in Kaya’s time loved their dolls as dearly as they do today. They tucked their dolls into miniature cradleboards and dressed them in carefully beaded buckskin dresses, just as real mothers did.” Welcome to Kaya’s World, p. 14.

Related image Kaya’s Hat and Parfleche

“Small painted parfleches, or rawhide storage envelopes, held doll accessories and other tiny toys. When girls grew up, they learned how to pack large parfleches with all their family’s belongings.” Welcome to Kaya’s World, p. 15.

Nez Perce Parfleches and Women’s Clothing

What clothes did the Nez Perce women wear?
“The Nez Perce women during the 1700’s wore large basket hats they wove out of dried leaves and plant fibers. The women of the tribe wore long dresses that covered them from the neck to their mid calves. The women also wore knee length moccasins during the winter. The Nez Perce made a large bag called a parfleche to store and carry their food and clothing. Parfleche were made from tough hides, and were often beautifully decorated. Nez Perce Clothes were decorated with beads made from a variety of materials that included shells, bones, pebbles, claws, nuts, seeds, porcupine quills, horns, pieces of metal and bird talons.” Read More Here

Authentic Nez Perce Parfleches – Image Credit Nez Perce National Historical Museum

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To increase the usefulness of their horses, the Nez Perce attached travois. Before they had horses, travois were attached to dogs, and they were the pack animals.

A traditional travois was made by lashing together [tying together] 2 larger tree poles and by lashing smaller poles across them to join them and make a flat surface.

The plural form of travois is travois.

 

 

The larger poles were also tied or attached to the dog or the horse.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The words Nez Perce [Nez Perce is is pronounced “nezz purse” in English. It comes from the French name for the tribe, Nez Percé (pronounced nay per-say.)]

Chief’s daughter – Nakoaktok, English name Francine, from Blunden Harbour or Ba’as in Kwak’wala, of the Nakwaxda’xw tribe. A chief’s daughter from the Nakoaktok nation. Shown wearing copper headpieces, abalone earrings, nose ring, and inscribed metal bracelets. – Image from Wikipedia

White settlers had seen other native Americans with pierced noses, and they named Kaya’s people Nez Perce. In reality, the Nez Perce rarely pierced their noses. The lady in the photo above was from the Nakoaktok nation, which was just north of Washington, where the Nez Perce settled.

During the Summer, Kaya’s People Lived in Teepees

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Image Credit: Nez Perce National Historical ParkRelated image

 

Image Credit: Nez Perce National Historical Park

Nez Perce Chief Joseph's tepee, Colville Indian Reservation, Washington, ca. 1901.:

Chief Joseph’s Longhouse – digitalcollections.lib.washington.edu

During the Winter, Most of the Nez Perce Lived in Lonhouses

Longhouses were sort of like teepee duplexes or apartments. They looked like several teepees joined together, and several families lived in each longhouse.

“When snow began to fall in the high country, most Nez Perce families returned to their permanent villages in the protected canyons. There, they cooked and slept in long, mat-covered houses. Each longhouse was home to several families–and sometimes the entire village!

“Dressed in warm hides, girls and boys helped their relatives prepare food and make clothes, baskets, and weapons. As they worked, they listened to the legends and stories their elders told. Over time, they learned the stories by heart and repeated them to their children’s children.” Welcome to Kaya’s World, p. 10.

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For extra protection, woven mats were attached to the outer shell of both the longhouses and the teepees. To anchor them, long poles rested against the mats.

The Bitterroot Mountains – Kaya’s Ancient Homelands

Related image “Kaya began each day with a prayer of thanks to Hun-Ya-wat, the Creator, for the earth, the sky, the water, and all the living things around her. Kaya’s people believed that their spirits were part of the land–a land of rugged peaks and deep canyons, dense  forests and vast grasslands, gently rolling hills and swift-moving rivers. For thousands of years, Kaya’s people had taken care of he land, and it had given them everything hey needed to survive and grow strong.” Welcome to Kay’s World, p. 2.

 

 

 

“The earth is the mother of all people, and all people should have equal rights upon it.”  – Chief Joseph

 

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Facts about the Nez Perce Native Indian Tribe

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The Nez Perce were essentially hunter-gatherers, especially before they acquired horses. After they had horses, they began traveling farther to hunt for game. They also fished for salmon.

“Danger was always present in the Nez Perces’ lives. A small fish harvest meant that food stores might not last through the winter. A harsh winter might put off the first root gatherings, leaving the village short of food during the early spring. Dry summers could spark devastating mountain fires. And always, enemy raiders and animal predators loomed just outside the safe confines of the village.” Welcome to Kaya’s World, p. 20.

Related image The Food that Kaya Gathers

Nez Perce traditional foods and recipes:

fs.usda.gov

What Food did the Nez Perce Eat?

“The Nez Perce tribe were one of the most numerous and powerful tribes of the Plateau Culture area. They lived a semi-nomadic lifestyle fishing, hunting, or gathering wild plants for food…. The introduction of the horse in the 1700’s brought about a change in lifestyle and many of the people traveled to the Great Plains to hunt buffalo. They adopted some of the ideas of the Great Plains native Indians including the use of the tepee which were covered with buffalo hides and some items of clothing made from buffalo hides.”

“The food that the Nez Perce tribe ate included salmon and fish and a variety of meats from the animals that they hunted. They supplemented their protein diet with seeds, nuts and fruits and used cornlike roots to make ‘kouse’ ”

Read More Here
What language did the Nez Perce tribe speak?
“The Nez Perce tribe spoke in a Sahaptian dialect of the Penutian language. They call themselves ‘Nimiipu’, which means “the people”.  Read More Here

 

What transportation did the Nez Perce use? Dugout Canoes
“The Nez Perce tribe built dugout canoes built dugout canoes made from the hollowed-out logs of large trees. The men hollowed logs with controlled fire that softened the timber so they could carve and shape their canoe to have a flat bottom with straight sides. The dugout canoes were important to the way of life of the Nez Perce as semi-nomadic fishers and hunters and was a perfect means of transportation for travel along fast streams and shallow waters of the Snake, Salmon, and Clearwater Rivers and their tributaries.” Read More Here

The Nez Perce tribe and the Lewis and Clark Expedition

“Lewis and Clark encountered the Nez Perce tribe in October 1805.” Read More Here

“The first white men of your people who came to our country were named Lewis and Clark. They brought many things that our people had never seen. They talked straight. These men were very kind. ” – Chief Joseph

 

What weapons did the Nez Perce use?
The weapons used by the Nez Perce were spears, knives, bows and arrows and clubs.

What clothes did the Nez Perce men wear?

“Traditional Nez Perce clothes were made of shredded cedar bark, deerskin, or rabbit skin. However with the introduction of the horse, and the ability to hunt buffalo on the Great plains, they used buffalo hides to make their clothes. The clothes worn by the men varied according to the season but generally they wore breechcloths and leggings, shirts and robes. Blankets and gloves were frequently used to keep out the cold. Nez Perce clothes were often belted and they wore moccasins on their feet. It was customary to decorate their clothes with fringes. Breastplates were worn for decoration purposes and made from the narrow dentallum shells acquired in trading with the coastal tribes and later they were made from buffalo bones and were called “pipe bones”. Armbands, wristbands and anklets were also worn for special ceremonies. Headdresses were made of feathers, but did not trail to the floor. Their hair was kept long and decorated with plaits and beads for special occasions.” Read More Here

When Kaya arrives, she is dressed in a simple and plain deerskin-like dress and moccassins.

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“The clothes that Nez Perce girls wore, like everything else in their lives, came from the natural world around the. Girls sewed together deer, elk, or sheep ides to make long, fringed dresses. A well-made dress was a gift to the Creator and an honor to the woman or girl who made it.” Welcome to Kaya’s World, p. 26

“Womem preferred to use the furs of female animals for dresses. They believed that an animal passed along qualities such as swiftness or bravery to the person who wore its skin.” Welcome to Kaya’s World, p. 28.

How to Prepare Deer Hide to Become Clothes

  1. Scraping  – Women stretched hides on wooden frames to flatten them and prevent them from shrinking. They cleaned the inside of ht skin with stone or bone scrapers.
  2. Soaking – To remove the hair, women dusted the hides with wood ashes and soaked them in water. After a few das, the hair was loose enoughto take off with scrapers made out of a deer or elk bone–and a lot of elbow grease!
  3. Tanning – To tan the hides, women carefully rubbed a paste of crushed animal brains onto the skin. Then they smoked the hides to make them waterprood and durable.
  4. Planning – I took two skins to make one dress–one skin for the back and one for the front. The hides were laid upside down so that thetails were at the top. [p. 26]
  5. Making Sinew – Women made sinew thread by separating the tendons of buffalo, elk, or other large animals. They licked the end of the thread and twisted it to make a sharp point. While they wee working, they kept the rest of the sinew balled up in their mouths so that it stayed moist and flexible.
  6. Instead of needle and thread, women used a sharp tool called an awl to poke holes in the deerskin. Then they threaded sinew through the holes to lace the edges together.
  7. Finishing Touch – To make the yoke, or top part of the dress, women folded the tail of the deer over and sewed it down. They left on the tail as a sign of respect for the deer. – Welcome to Kaya’s World – pgs. 26 -27.

Pow Wow Clothes

“Young girls clothes were usually plain and pracical. But girlsalso spent hours decorating special outfits with elaborate patterns of quills, shells, and beads. Girls exccitedly loooked forward to the honor of wearing their beautiful dresses at a tribal ceremony or feast. .

. . .

“In Kaya’s time, women would have used colorful porcupine quills or painted designs to give their dresses unique style.

“Women attached long ribbons of fringe by threading them through tiny slits in the dress and then knotting or beading the fringes to keep them in place,

. . .

“Dresses were fringed along the bottom, sleeves, and side seams. Fringes added grace to a woman’s movements.” Welcome to Kaya’s World, p. 28.

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Kaya’s Shawl Dress

 

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Both of the above of Kaya’s Dresses are Jingle Dresses.

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The above is not a Jingle Dress. It is Kaya’s Pow Wow Dress of Today.

 

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The above is not a Jingle Dress. It is Kaya’s Pow Wow Dress of Today III

The following video shows people from different tribes beading and sewing their costumes and performing in Pow Wows. One of he ladies performs the Jingle Dance. Kaya has Jingle Pow Wow Dresses, as well as other kinds of Pow Wow Dresses.

powwow-picture-3.jpg

Image Credit National Geographic Here

“I am Niimiipuu, the people also known as Nez Perce,” says Angel McFarland-Sobotta. “As a University of Washington graduate I now coordinate the Nez Perce language program.”

Powwow-picture-1.jpgImage Credit National Geographic Here

“I dance to give thanks to Great Grandfather for giving us wonderful things–songs and dances, animals, birds, creatures, and insects; trees and plants and all human beings,” says Fabian Fontenelle, a powwow dancer of Omaha and Zuni descent.

Photo by Ben Marra

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“The outfit I wear was given to me by my father,” says Ardell Scalplock, a Siksika powwow dancer. “My dad and I traveled to many powwows and he always taught me to have a kind word for everyone we meet. I’ve tried my best to make my dad proud, and I hope his legacy will always be carried on through me and my children.”

Photo by Ben Marra

American Girl Doll Club

You may believe that the American Doll experience is limited to nothing more than the buying of expensive dolls, but that is not the case. From the very beginning, Pleasant T. Rowland launched the company as a way to teach the history of America to girls and from the beginning, the dolls spanned several generations.

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Also from the beginning, the dolls were launched with a set of books that provided historical enrichment, along with a range of teachable ideals.

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Felicity is only one of the many American Girl Dolls, but she represents an early part of this nation’s history. Let’s look at how a child might learn though her involvement with Felicity.

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Felicity Merriman is a doll who represents the American Revolutionary period – 1774. As a child learns about Felicity and her clothes, she learns about the 1700s.

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As we study the American Dolls, we will learn how to cook and how to sew in the ways that would have been popular in each doll’s time frame.

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6aIn the Foreword to the book American Girl Ultimate Visual Guide, Valerie Tripp said the following:

“How a girl relates to her doll is a marvelous mystery. She can be her doll’s mother or her best friend. Sometimes she is the doll herself–becoming part of her world and her time, standing in her shoes, facing her challenges, and feeling her sadness and her joy.”

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Smart educators have learned that the best way to teach a child is to allow him or her to re-live or become involved with what they are studying, and one of the brilliant things about the American Girl Doll Company is that it has harnessed play as a powerful teaching tool.

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Celebrate America’s History and Diversity
Through American Girl Dolls

Image result for Bering Land BridgeIf we are totally honest, we must acknowledge that every person in America is an immigrant. In the very beginning, America was a land filled with forests and deserts and mountains and rocks and animals. It is commonly believed that the first Americans, the Native Americans, gradually crossed the Bering Land Bridge, when it was frozen.

The American Girl Kaya, from 1764, represents the Native Americans who first crossed the icy mass and populated America.

Because Kaya is the first historical American Doll and because she represents the first people to live in the USA, we’ll begin our doll club by studying Kaya.Related image

 

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Related imageStay Tuned for Much, Much More about Kaya and all of the rest of the American Girl Dolls. Together, We’ll Learn to be Stars.

©Jacki Kellum December 21, 2016

 

Yes, Viriginia, There Is A Santa Claus – Lesson in Faith

In 1897, a little girl named Alice O’Hanlon, from New York City,  wrote The Sun paper and asked if there really was a Santa Claus. Her friends had told her that Santa was simply a myth.

The above illustrations are from the picture book Yes, Virginia, There Is A Santa Claus Illustrated by Joel Spector.

The reporter Frances P. Church responded in his newspaper, and his letter has become the stuff of literary and social history. The words that he wrote have been turned into several picture books. The one pictured above was illustrated by Joel Spector. Following is what he said:

“VIRGINIA, your little friends are wrong. They have been affected by the skepticism of a skeptical age. They do not believe except they see. They think that nothing can be which is not comprehensible by their little minds. All minds, Virginia, whether they be men’s or children’s, are little. In this great universe of ours man is a mere insect, an ant, in his intellect, as compared with the boundless world about him, as measured by the intelligence capable of grasping the whole of truth and knowledge.

“Yes, VIRGINIA, there is a Santa Claus. He exists as certainly as love and generosity and devotion exist, and you know that they abound and give to your life its highest beauty and joy. Alas! how dreary would be the world if there were no Santa Claus. It would be as dreary as if there were no VIRGINIAS. There would be no childlike faith then, no poetry, no romance to make tolerable this existence. We should have no enjoyment, except in sense and sight. The eternal light with which childhood fills the world would be extinguished.

“Not believe in Santa Claus! You might as well not believe in fairies! You might get your papa to hire men to watch in all the chimneys on Christmas Eve to catch Santa Claus, but even if they did not see Santa Claus coming down, what would that prove? Nobody sees Santa Claus, but that is no sign that there is no Santa Claus. The most real things in the world are those that neither children nor men can see. Did you ever see fairies dancing on the lawn? Of course not, but that’s no proof that they are not there. Nobody can conceive or imagine all the wonders there are unseen and unseeable in the world.

“You may tear apart the baby’s rattle and see what makes the noise inside, but there is a veil covering the unseen world which not the strongest man, nor even the united strength of all the strongest men that ever lived, could tear apart. Only faith, fancy, poetry, love, romance, can push aside that curtain and view and picture the supernal beauty and glory beyond. Is it all real? Ah, VIRGINIA, in all this world there is nothing else real and abiding.

“No Santa Claus! Thank God! he lives, and he lives forever. A thousand years from now, Virginia, nay, ten times ten thousand years from now, he will continue to make glad the heart of childhood.”

“And he said: “Truly I tell you, unless you change and become like little children,
you will never enter the kingdom of heaven.” Matthew 18: 3

 

Free Ebook Jacki Kellum Reading How the Grinch Stole Christmas

In Jacki Kellum’s opinion, nothing offers humanity quite as much joy as children and children’s literature. Although she participates in several different pursuits, one of her favorite pastimes is that of reading to her local library’s children on Tuesday and Wednesday mornings. Enjoy an audio recording of the Seuss Classic read by Jacki Kellum, with her deeply Southern accent: How the Grinch Stole Christmas. This Read-Along is generously illustrated with 25 of Dr. Seuss’s original Grinch images.

When Was the Victorian Period? – A List of Victorian Books & Authors – Free Ebooks of Classic Literature

Technically, the Victorian era did not begin until Victoria became Queen of England in 1837, but several books published before 1837 could be called Victorian Classics.

List of Popular Victorian Classic Books:

 1811 Sense and Sensibility – Jane Austen

Jane Austen’s first published work, meticulously constructed and sparkling with her unique wit

Marianne Dashwood wears her heart on her sleeve, and when she falls in love with the dashing but unsuitable John Willoughby she ignores her sister Elinor’s warning that her impulsive behaviour leaves her open to gossip and innuendo. Meanwhile Elinor, always sensitive to social convention, is struggling to conceal her own romantic disappointment, even from those closest to her. Through their parallel experience of love – and its threatened loss – the sisters learn that sense must mix with sensibility if they are to find personal happiness in a society where status and money govern the rules of love.

– 4 1/2 Stars – 368  Pages

 

Image result for pride and prejudice book1813 – Pride and Prejudice – Jane Austen
“One of the most universally loved and admired English novels, Pride and Prejudice was penned as a popular entertainment. But the consummate artistry of Jane Austen (1775–1817) transformed this effervescent tale of rural romance into a witty, shrewdly observed satire of English country life that is now regarded as one of the principal treasures of English language.
In a remote Hertfordshire village, far off the good coach roads of George III’s England, a country squire of no great means must marry off his five vivacious daughters. At the heart of this all-consuming enterprise are his headstrong second daughter Elizabeth Bennet and her aristocratic suitor Fitzwilliam Darcy — two lovers whose pride must be humbled and prejudices dissolved before the novel can come to its splendid conclusion.” – 4 1/2 Stars – 272  Pages
Pride and Prejudice Free Online Book Here: https://www.gutenberg.org/files/1342/1342-h/1342-h.htm

 

Image result for emma by jane austen 1815 – Emma by Jane Austen
“Beautiful, clever, rich—and single—Emma Woodhouse is perfectly content with her life and sees no need for either love or marriage. Nothing, however, delights her more than interfering in the romantic lives of others. But when she ignores the warnings of her good friend Mr. Knightley and attempts to arrange a suitable match for her protegee Harriet Smith, her carefully laid plans soon unravel and have consequences that she never expected. With its imperfect but charming heroine and its witty and subtle exploration of relationships, Emma is often seen as Jane Austen’s most flawless work.” – 4 1/2 Stars – 264  Pages – Amazon
Emma Free Online Book Here: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/158/158-pdf.pdf

 

 

 1818 – Frankenstein – Mary Shelley

Frankenstein, loved by many decades of readers and praised by such eminent literary critics as Harold Bloom, seems hardly to need a recommendation. If you haven’t read it recently, though, you may not remember the sweeping force of the prose, the grotesque, surreal imagery, and the multilayered doppelgänger themes of Mary Shelley’s masterpiece. As fantasy writer Jane Yolen writes of this (the reviewer’s favorite) edition, “The strong black and whites of the main text [illustrations] are dark and brooding, with unremitting shadows and stark contrasts. But the central conversation with the monster–who owes nothing to the overused movie image … but is rather the novel’s charnel-house composite–is where [Barry] Moser’s illustrations show their greatest power … The viewer can all but smell the powerful stench of the monster’s breath as its words spill out across the page. Strong book-making for one of the world’s strongest and most remarkable books.”

– 4 Stars –166  Pages– Amazon

 1838 – Oliver Twist – Charles Dickens

Oliver Twist, or The Parish Boy’s Progress, Is the second novel by Charles Dickens, and was first published as a serial 1837–39. The story is of the orphan Oliver Twist, who starts his life in a workhouse and is then sold into apprenticeship with an undertaker. He escapes from there and travels to London, where he meets the Artful Dodger, a member of a gang of juvenile pickpockets led by the elderly criminal Fagin. Oliver Twist is notable for its unromantic portrayal by Dickens of criminals and their sordid lives, as well as for exposing the cruel treatment of the many orphans in London in the mid-19th century.The alternate title, The Parish Boy’s Progress, alludes to Bunyan’s The Pilgrim’s Progress, as well as the 18th-century caricature series by William Hogarth, A Rake’s Progress and A Harlot’s Progress. In this early example of the social novel, Dickens satirizes the hypocrisies of his time, including child labour, the recruitment of children as criminals, and the presence of street children. The novel may have been inspired by the story of Robert Blincoe, an orphan whose account of working as a child labourer in a cotton mill was widely read in the 1830s. It is likely that Dickens’s own youthful experiences contributed as well. Oliver Twist has been the subject of numerous adaptations for various media, including a highly successful musical play, Oliver!, and the multiple Academy Award-winning 1968 motion picture. – 4 1/2 Stars –300  Pages– Amazon Full Text  of Oliver Twist Free Online http://pinkmonkey.com/dl/library1/dic01.pdf

 Image result for a christmas carol book1843 – A Christmas Carol – Charles Dickens
“A Christmas Carol is a novella by English author Charles Dickens. It was first published by Chapman & Hall on 19 December 1843. Carol tells the story of a bitter old miser named Ebenezer Scrooge and his transformation resulting from a supernatural visit by the ghost of his former business partner Jacob Marley and the Ghosts of Christmases Past, Present and Yet to Come. The novella met with instant success and critical acclaim. The book was written and published in early Victorian era Britain, a period when there was strong nostalgia for old Christmas traditions together with the introduction of new customs, such as Christmas trees and greeting cards. Dickens’ sources for the tale appear to be many and varied, but are, principally, the humiliating experiences of his childhood, his sympathy for the poor, and various Christmas stories and fairy tales.” – 4 1/2 Stars – 60  Pages– Amazon Gutenberg Free Ebook The Christmas Carol Online Here

 1847 – Jane Eyre – Charlotte Brontë
“A novel of intense power and intrigue, Jane Eyre has dazzled generations of readers with its depiction of a woman’s quest for freedom. Having grown up an orphan in the home of her cruel aunt and at a harsh charity school, Jane Eyre becomes an independent and spirited survivor-qualities that serve her well as governess at Thornfield Hall. But when she finds love with her sardonic employer, Rochester, the discovery of his terrible secret forces her to make a choice. Should she stay with him whatever the consequences or follow her convictions, even if it means leaving her beloved?”  – 4 1/2 Stars – 624 Pages – Amazon
Jane Eyre Free Online Book Here: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/1260/1260-h/1260-h.htm

 

 

 Image result for wuthering heights1847 – Wuthering Heights – Emily Brontë
“Lockwood, the new tenant of Thrushcross Grange, situated on the bleak Yorkshire moors, is forced to seek shelter one night at Wuthering Heights, the home of his landlord. There he discovers the history of the tempestuous events that took place years before; of the intense relationship between the gypsy foundling Heathcliff and Catherine Earnshaw; and how Catherine, forced to choose between passionate, tortured Heathcliff and gentle, well-bred Edgar Linton, surrendered to the expectations of her class. As Heathcliff’s bitterness and vengeance at his betrayal is visited upon the next generation, their innocent heirs must struggle to escape the legacy of the past.” – 4 1/2 Stars – 416 Pages – Amazon

Wuthering Heights Free Online Book: http://publicliterature.org/pdf/768.pdf

 

 

Image result for scarlet letter1850 – The Scarlet Letter – Nathaniel Hawthorne
“Like all of Hawthorne’s novels, “The Scarlet Letter” has but a slender plot and but few characters with an influence on the development of the story. Its great dramatic force depends entirely on the mental states of the actors and their relations to one another, —relations of conscience, — relations between wronged and wrongers. Its great burden is the weight of unacknowledged sin as seen in the remorse and cowardice and suffering of the Rev. Arthur Dimmesdale. Contrasted with his concealed agony is the constant confession, conveyed by the letter, which is forced upon Hester, and has a double effect, — a healthful one, working beneficently, and making her helpful and benevolent, tolerant and thoughtful ; and an unhealthful one, which by the great emphasis placed on her transgression, the keeping her forever under its ban and isolating her from her fellows, prepares her to break away from the long repression and lapse again into sin when she plans her flight. Roger Chillingworth is an embodiment of subtle and refined revenge. The most striking situation is perhaps “The Minister’s Vigil,” in chapter xii. The book, though corresponding in its tone and burden to some of the shorter stories, had a more startling and dramatic character, and a strangeness, which at once took hold of a larger public than any of those had attracted. Though imperfectly comprehended, and even misunderstood in some quarters, it was seen to have a new and unique quality; and Hawthorne’s reputation became national.”   – 4 Stars – 148 Pages – Amazon

 1850 – David Copperfield – Charles Dickens

In one of his most energetic and enjoyable novels, Dickens tells the life story of David Copperfield, from his birth in Suffolk, through the various struggles of his childhood, to his successful career as a novelist. The early scenes are particularly masterful, depicting the world as seen from the perspective of a fatherless small boy, whose idyllic life with his mother is ruined when his mother marries again, this time to a domineering and cruel man. The novel is partly modelled on Dickens’s own experiences, but that is not to say that it is in any way a direct autobiography. Indeed, one of the great joys of the book lies in its outlandish cast of characters, which includes the glamorous Steerforth, the cheerful, verbose Mr Micawber, the villainous Uriah Heep, and David’s eccentric aunt, Betsey Trotwood. Dickens described it as his ‘favourite child’ among his novels and it is easy to see why.

4 1/2 Stars – 1264 Pages – Amazon

 

 1853 – Bleak House – Charles Dickens

As the interminable case of ‘Jarndyce and Jarndyce’ grinds its way through the Court of Chancery, it draws together a disparate group of people: Ada and Richard Clare, whose inheritance is gradually being devoured by legal costs; Esther Summerson, a ward of court, whose parentage is a source of deepening mystery; the menacing lawyer Tulkinghorn; the determined sleuth Inspector Bucket; and even Jo, the destitute little crossing-sweeper. A savage, but often comic, indictment of a society that is rotten to the core, Bleak House is one of Dickens’s most ambitious novels, with a range that extends from the drawing rooms of the aristocracy to the poorest of London slums. This edition follows the first book edition of 1853, and includes all the original illustrations by ‘Phiz’, as well as appendices on the Chancery and spontaneous combustion.

4 1/2 Stars – 1036 Pages – Amazon

 

 1853 – Villette – Charlotte Brontë

“I am only just returned to a sense of real wonder about me, for I have been reading Villette…” —George Eliot

With neither friends nor family, Lucy Snowe sets sail from England to find employment in a girls’ boarding school in the small town of Villette. There she struggles to retain her self-possession in the face of unruly pupils, an initially suspicious headmaster, and her own complex feelings, first for the school’s English doctor and then for the dictatorial professor, Paul Emmanuel. Charlotte Brontë’s last and most autobiographical novel is a powerfully moving study of isolation and the pain of unrequited love, narrated by a heroine determined to preserve an independent spirit in the face of adverse circumstances.

4 –672 Pages  – Amazon

 

 1854 – North and South – Elizabeth Gaskell

North and South is a novel by Elizabeth Gaskell, first published in book form in 1855 originally appeared as a twenty-two-part weekly serial from September 1854 through January 1855 in the magazine Household Words, edited by Charles Dickens. The title indicates a major theme of the book: the contrast between the way of life in the industrial north of England and the wealthier south, although it was only under pressure from her publishers that Gaskell changed the title from its original, Margaret Hale. The book is a social novel that tries to show the industrial North and its conflicts in the mid-19th century as seen by an outsider, a socially sensitive lady from the South. The heroine of the story, Margaret Hale, is the daughter of a Nonconformist minister who moves to the fictional industrial town of Milton after leaving the Church of England. The town is modeled after Manchester, where Gaskell lived as the wife of a Unitarian minister. Gaskell herself worked among the poor and knew at first hand the misery of the industrial areas. The change of lifestyle shocks Margaret, who sympathizes deeply with the poverty of the workers and comes into conflict with John Thornton, the owner of a local mill, also a friend of her father. After an encounter with a group of strikers, in which Margaret attempts to protect Thornton from the violence, he proposes to her, telling her that he is in love with her; she rejects his proposal of marriage, mainly because she sees it as if it were out of obligation for what she had done. Later, he sees her with her fugitive brother, whom he mistakes for another suitor, and this creates further unresolved conflict. Margaret, once she believes she has lost his affection, begins to see him in another light, and eventually they are reunited.  – 4 1/2 Stars –480 Pages  – Amazon Full Text of North and South: http://publicliterature.org/pdf/ecgns10.pdf

Image result 1857 – Little Dorritt – Charles Dickens

A novel of serendipity, of fortunes won and lost, and of the spectre of imprisonment that hangs over all aspects of Victorian society

When Arthur Clennam returns to England after many years abroad, he takes a kindly interest in Amy Dorrit, his mother’s seamstress, and in the affairs of Amy’s father, William Dorrit, a man of shabby grandeur, long imprisoned for debt in Marshalsea prison. As Arthur soon discovers, the dark shadow of the prison stretches far beyond its walls to affect the lives of many, from the kindly Mr Panks, the reluctant rent-collector of Bleeding Heart Yard, and the tipsily garrulous Flora Finching, to Merdle, an unscrupulous financier, and the bureaucratic Barnacles in the Circumlocution Office. A masterly evocation of the state and psychology of imprisonment, Little Dorrit is one of the supreme works of Dickens’s maturity. Stephen Wall’s introduction examines Dickens’s transformation of childhood memories of his father’s incarceration in the Marshalsea debtors’ prison. – 4 1/2 Stars –1024 Pages  – Amazon

 1859 – A Tale of Two Cities – Charles Dickens

It was the time of the French Revolution — a time of great change and great danger. It was a time when injustice was met by a lust for vengeance, and rarely was a distinction made between the innocent and the guilty. Against this tumultuous historical backdrop, Dickens’ great story of unsurpassed adventure and courage unfolds.
Unjustly imprisoned for 18 years in the Bastille, Dr. Alexandre Manette is reunited with his daughter, Lucie, and safely transported from France to England. It would seem that they could take up the threads of their lives in peace. As fate would have it though, the pair are summoned to the Old Bailey to testify against a young Frenchman — Charles Darnay — falsely accused of treason. Strangely enough, Darnay bears an uncanny resemblance to another man in the courtroom, the dissolute lawyer’s clerk Sydney Carton. It is a coincidence that saves Darnay from certain doom more than once. Brilliantly plotted, the novel is rich in drama, romance, and heroics that culminate in a daring prison escape in the shadow of the guillotine.

– 4 1/2 Stars –304 Pages  – Amazon

 

1860 – Mill on the Floss – George Eliot
“This Eliot novel tells the story of Tom and Maggie Tulliver, a pair of siblings who grow up together on a river in early nineteenth century England. While Tom’s reserved nature and Maggie’s idealism produce differences that strain their love in times of hardship, the two ultimately reconcile when confronted with certain death. A powerful work on individual tenacity in the face of oppressive circumstance, The Mill on the Floss remains one of Eliot’s most powerful works on unconditional solidarity and love.”  – 4 1/2 Stars – 346 Pages – Amazon

 

 

 

 

  1861 – Silas Marner – George Eliot
“In this heartwarming classic by George Eliot, a gentle linen weaver named Silas Marner is wrongly accused of a heinous theft actually committed by his best friend. Exiling himself to the rustic village of Raveloe, he becomes a lonely recluse. Ultimately, Marner finds redemption and spiritual rebirth through his unselfish love for an abandoned child who mysteriously appears one day in his isolated cottage.

Somber, yet hopeful, Eliot’s realistic depiction of an irretrievable past, tempered with the magical elements of myth and fairy tale, remains timeless in its understanding of human nature and has been beloved for generations.”   – 4 1/2 Stars – 208 Pages – Amazon

 

 

 Image result for great expectations book cover1861 – Great Expectations – Charles Dickens
“Great Expectations is Charles Dickens’s thirteenth novel. It is his second novel, after David Copperfield, to be fully narrated in the first person. Great Expectations is a bildungsroman, or a coming-of-age novel, and it is a classic work of Victorian literature. It depicts the growth and personal development of an orphan named Pip. The novel was first published in serial form in Dickens’s weekly periodical All the Year Round, from 1 December 1860 to August 1861. In October 1861, Chapman and Hall published the novel in three volumes. Dickens originally intended Great Expectations to be twice as long, but constraints imposed by the management of All the Year Round limited the novel’s length. The novel is collected and dense, with a conciseness unusual for Dickens. According to G. K. Chesterton, Dickens penned Great Expectations in “the afternoon of [his] life and fame.” It was the penultimate novel Dickens completed, preceding Our Mutual Friend. It is set among the marshes of Kent and in London in the early to mid-1800s. The novel contains some of Dickens most memorable scenes, including its opening, in a graveyard, when the young orphan Pip is accosted by the escaped convict, Abel Magwitch. Great Expectations is a graphic book, full of extreme imagery, poverty, prison ships (“the hulks”), barriers and chains, and fights to the death.”  – 4 1/2 Stars – 284 Pages – Amazon

Full Text Great Expectations Free: http://www.planetpdf.com/planetpdf/pdfs/free_ebooks/Great_Expectations_T.pdf

Image result for little women book cover 1868 – Little Women by Louisa May Alcott
“Little Women is a novel by American author Louisa May Alcott (1832–1888), which was originally published in two volumes in 1868 and 1869. Alcott wrote the books rapidly over several months at the request of her publisher. The novel follows the lives of four sisters—Meg, Jo, Beth, and Amy March—detailing their passage from childhood to womanhood, and is loosely based on the author and her three sisters. Little Women was an immediate commercial and critical success, and readers demanded to know more about the characters.” – 4 1/2 Stars – 280  Pages  – Amazon

 

 

 

Image result for middlemarch 1870 – Middlemarch by George Eliot
“George Eliot’s novel, Middlemarch: A Study of Provincial Life, explores a fictional nineteenth-century Midlands town in the midst of modern changes. The proposed Reform Bill promises political change; the building of railroads alters both the physical and cultural landscape; new scientific approaches to medicine incite public division; and scandal lurks behind respectability. The quiet drama of ordinary lives and flawed choices are played out in the complexly portrayed central characters of the novel—the idealistic Dorothea Brooke; the ambitious Dr. Lydgate; the spendthrift Fred Vincy; and the steadfast Mary Garth.” – 4 1/2 Stars – 880  Pages  – Amazon

 

 

 

 1878 – The Return of the Native – Thomas Hardy
“Tempestuous Eustacia Vye passes her days dreaming of passionate love and the escape it may bring from the small community of Egdon Heath.  Hearing that Clym Yeobright is to return from Paris, she sets her heart on marrying him, believing that through him she can leave rural life and find fulfilment elsewhere. But she is to be disappointed, for Clym has dreams of his own, and they have little in common with Eustacia’s. Their unhappy marriage causes havoc in the lives of those close to them, in particular Damon Wildeve, Eustacia’s former lover, Clym’s mothe”r and his cousin Thomasin. The Return of the Native illustrates the tragic potential of romantic illusion and how its protagonists fail to recognize their opportunities to control their own destinies.” – 4 1/2 Stars – 496 Pages  – Amazon

 

Image result for a study in scarlet 1887 – A Study in Scarlet – Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
“A Study in Scarlet is a detective mystery novel written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, introducing his new characters, “consulting detective” Sherlock Holmes and his friend and chronicler, Dr. John Watson, who later became two of the most famous characters in literature. Conan Doyle wrote the story in 1886, and it was published the following year. The book’s title derives from a speech given by Holmes to Doctor Watson on the nature of his work, in which he describes the story’s murder investigation as his “study in scarlet”: “There’s the scarlet thread of murder running through the colourless skein of life, and our duty is to unravel it, and isolate it, and expose every inch of it.”  – 4 1/2 Stars – 114  Pages  – Amazon

 


1890 – The Picture of Dorian Gray – Oscar Wilde

“In this celebrated work, his only novel, Wilde forged a devastating portrait of the effects of evil and debauchery on a young aesthete in late-19th-century England. Combining elements of the Gothic horror novel and decadent French fiction, the book centers on a striking premise: As Dorian Gray sinks into a life of crime and gross sensuality, his body retains perfect youth and vigor while his recently painted portrait grows day by day into a hideous record of evil, which he must keep hidden from the world. For over a century, this mesmerizing tale of horror and suspense has enjoyed wide popularity. It ranks as one of Wilde’s most important creations and among the classic achievements of its kind.” – 4 1/2 Stars – 176  Pages  – Amazon

Full Text The Picture of Dorian Gray Free: http://www.planetpublish.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/The_Picture_of_Dorian_Gray_NT.pdf

 

Related image 1891 – Tess of the D’Urbervilles – Thomas Hardy
“When Tess Durbeyfield is driven by family poverty to claim kinship with the wealthy D’Urbervilles and seek a portion of their family fortune, meeting her ‘cousin’ Alec proves to be her downfall. A very different man, Angel Clare, seems to offer her love and salvation, but Tess must choose whether to reveal her past or remain silent in the hope of a peaceful future. With its sensitive depiction of the wronged Tess and powerful criticism of social convention, Tess of the D’Urbervilles, subtitled “A Pure Woman,” is one of the most moving and poetic of Hardy’s novels.”  –  4 Stars – 592  Pages Amazon

 

 

 

 1893 – The Importance of Being Earnest – Oscar Wilde

The Importance of Being Earnest, A Trivial Comedy for Serious People is a play by Oscar Wilde. First performed on 14 February 1895 at the St James’s Theatre in London, it is a farcical comedy in which the protagonists maintain fictitious personæ to escape burdensome social obligations. Working within the social conventions of late Victorian London, the play’s major themes are the triviality with which it treats institutions as serious as marriage, and the resulting satire of Victorian ways. Contemporary reviews all praised the play’s humour, though some were cautious about its explicit lack of social messages, while others foresaw the modern consensus that it was the culmination of Wilde’s artistic career so far. Its high farce and witty dialogue have helped make The Importance of Being Earnest Wilde’s most enduringly popular play. The successful opening night marked the climax of Wilde’s career but also heralded his downfall. The Marquess of Queensberry, whose son Lord Alfred Douglas was Wilde’s lover, planned to present the writer with a bouquet of rotten vegetables and disrupt the show. Wilde was tipped off and Queensberry was refused admission. Soon afterwards their feud came to a climax in court, where Wilde’s homosexual double life was revealed to the Victorian public and he was eventually sentenced to imprisonment. His notoriety caused the play, despite its early success, to be closed after 86 performances. After his release, he published the play from exile in Paris, but he wrote no further comic or dramatic work. – 4 1/2 Stars – 60 Pages – Amazon

 

 1897 – Dracula – Bram Stoker
“During a business visit to Count Dracula’s castle in Transylvania, a young English solicitor finds himself at the center of a series of horrifying incidents. Jonathan Harker is attacked by three phantom women, observes the Count’s transformation from human to bat form, and discovers puncture wounds on his own neck that seem to have been made by teeth. Harker returns home upon his escape from Dracula’s grim fortress, but a friend’s strange malady — involving sleepwalking, inexplicable blood loss, and mysterious throat wounds — initiates a frantic vampire hunt. The popularity of Bram Stoker’s 1897 horror romance is as deathless as any vampire.  Its supernatural appeal has spawned a host of film and stage adaptations, and more than a century after its initial publication, it continues to hold readers spellbound.” – 4 1/2 Stars – 336 Pages – Amazon

Recipes from Jane Austen’s Victorian England – Time of Pride & Prejudice

How to Make Mince Pies – The Victorian Way – with Meat

When I was a child in the 1950s, I remember the rare mince meat pie on our Christmas table, and even then, I was suspicious of its flavor. Many years later, I learned that mince meat pie is made with real meat–and an exceeding amount of spices. Enjoy the above video that shows how mince meat pies were made hundreds of years ago.

How to Make Authentic Gingerbread – The Victorian Way

How to Make Christmas Ginger Punch – The Victorian Way

How to Make Queen Drop Biscuits – The Victorian Way

How to Make Apple Hedgehog – The Victorian Way Hedgehog

How to Make A Real Cup of English Tea – The Victorian Way

How to Make Pancakes – The Victorian Way

FRENCH PANCAKES

  • ½ pint whipped cream
  • 4 eggs
  • 12 tbsp flour

Whip the cream until thick. Beat the eggs separately then add to the cream. Lightly whip the flour into the mixture, then pour into 6 well-buttered saucers and bake for a few minutes. Have two together with jam in between. [Mrs. Crocombe’s Recipes]

How to Make Sandwiches – The Victorian Way

 

How to Make Ice Cream – The Victorian Way

During the Victorian era, a number of people had returned to England after working in India, and they brought their newly discovered appetites for curry with them.

“Some brought their Indian cooks back with them, but others took advantage, either of curry houses – the first was the Hindoustanee in 1810, but there was at least one coffee house serving curry in 1773 – or of the commercially produced curry powder on sale by 1780. Queen Victoria, on whose tables curries appeared throughout her reign, employed Indian servants to wait on her from the 1870s. On at least one occasion one of them cooked her a curry of his own creation, which she greatly enjoyed.” from FutureLearn Here

Recipe for curry powder

Recipe from the New England Cookbook, 1836

Avis Crocombe's Cookbook MRS CROCOMBE’S RECIPES

Avis Crocombe was the cook at Audley End in the 1880s and we are fortunate to have her original notebook of recipes. Our expert on historic cookery has taken these original recipes and made sure that all the ingredients are readily available today. Why not try and recreate a taste of Audley End in Victorian times?

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victorianpeachice1

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How to Make Victorian Sandwiches from Sponge Cake

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